A Gendarmerie or Gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "Gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as "gendarmes as a body". The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) may also be used (e.g., Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon.
Sometimes forces that are no longer military still use the title for historic reasons, in the same manner as many other units use obsolete military titles (cf. "hussars", "cuirassiers" etc.) but these are not strictly gendarmeries.