Measures taken to ensure national security include:
- using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats.
- maintaining effective armed forces.
- implementing civil defense and emergency preparedness measures (including anti-terrorism legislation).
- ensuring the resilience and redundancy of critical infrastructure.
- using intelligence services to detect and defeat or avoid threats and espionage, and to protect classified information.
- using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation from internal threats.
- using the concept of national security as a pretext to indulge any misguided act of foreign policy one chooses.